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Working Group Meeting

Pheromone lures for detection and monitoring

Budapest, October 2-3, 1997



The formulation of reliable lures requires intimate knowledge of pheromone chemistry and biology. Initially, pheromone lures and traps were distributed by government research institutes, which had played an active role in their development. Today, pheromone lures are commercially available from a number of companies - these lures vary greatly in efficacy. This is due to a varying degree of purity of the starting materials as well as inadvertent changes in dispenser materials, lure composition and dose from one year to the other.

The Working Group Meetings in Avignon (1988) and Budapest (1997) were dedicated to insect lures. The following conclusions on the topic of quality control were reached in Budapest:

1. In view of the variable performance of insect lures for insect monitoring and detection found on the market, it is suggested that commercial lures should carry information on the supplier, the batch of chemical(s) and support materials used.

2. Chemical information should include the amounts and chemical purities of each component. An exception to this rule can be made for component(s) in case of proprietary information.

3. Biological information on lures and batches should include field results with geographical location and history. Data should retain absolute captures of target an non-target species.

4. The Working Group will establish procedures of experimental design and statistical evaluation of field tests. For the present time, the following rules are proposed: a) A distinction between an effective and an ineffective lure should be based on at least 3 replicates; b) quantitative differences between lures should be based on tests with at least 10 replicates; c) trap catches of less than 10 specimens per trap and season should generally be considered insufficient to claim efficacy.

5. The Working Group will serve as a mediator to publish chemical and biological information on lures and chemicals on the Internet.


0-05-01 peter.witzgall@phero.net